We are developing a computer-aided detection system for bladder cancer in CT urography (CTU). We have previously developed methods for detection of bladder masses within the contrast-enhanced and the non-contrastenhanced regions of the bladder individually. In this study, we investigated methods for detection of bladder masses within the entire bladder. The bladder was segmented using our method that combined deep-learning convolutional neural network with level sets. The non-contrast-enhanced region was separated from the contrast-enhanced region with a maximum-intensity-projection-based method. The non-contrast region was smoothed and gray level threshold was applied to the contrast and non-contrast regions separately to extract the bladder wall and potential masses. The bladder wall was transformed into a straightened thickness profile, which was analyzed to identify lesion candidates in a prescreening step. The candidates were mapped back to the 3D CT volume and segmented using our auto-initialized cascaded level set (AI-CALS) segmentation method. Twenty-seven morphological features were extracted for each candidate. A data set of 57 patients with 71 biopsy-proven bladder lesions was used, which was split into independent training and test sets: 42 training cases with 52 lesions, and 15 test cases with 19 lesions. Using the training set, feature selection was performed and a linear discriminant (LDA) classifier was designed to merge the selected features for classification of bladder lesions and false positives. The trained classifier was evaluated with the test set. FROC analysis showed that the system achieved a sensitivity of 86.5% at 3.3 FPs/case for the training set, and 84.2% at 3.7 FPs/case for the test set.
Kenny H. Cha, Lubomir M. Hadjiiski, Heang-Ping Chan, Elaine M. Caoili, Richard H. Cohan, Alon Weizer, and Ravi K. Samala, "Computer-aided detection of bladder masses in CT urography (CTU)," Proc. SPIE 10134, Medical Imaging 2017: Computer-Aided Diagnosis, 1013403 (Presented at SPIE Medical Imaging: February 13, 2017; Published: 3 March 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2255668.
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