Complex intravascular lesions, such as chronic total occlusions (CTOs), require forward-looking imaging. We propose to use a 25 MHz single-element transducer and an optical shape sensing (OSS) fiber integrated into a steerable catheter to achieve intravascular imaging in a forward-looking approach.
A tissue-mimicking phantom with three hollow channels (3, 2 and 1 mm in diameter) and two steel spheres (1.5 mm in diameter) is used as imaging target. Ultrasound data and OSS data are simultaneously acquired while steering and rotating a 8.5 F catheter with bidirectional tip flexion. The obtained ultrasound data are reconstructed in 3D space using the position and direction information from the OSS data. Afterwards, the sparsely sampled ultrasound data are projected on a 2D plane and interpolated using normalized convolution (NC), which has been shown previously to perform well on irregularly sampled data .
The front surface of the phantom together with the location of two of the three channels and the two steel spheres are successfully reconstructed. The ability to reconstruct different components and their location in space is very important during CTOs crossing. This type of information can aid the crossing procedure providing insights about the best entry point, such as channels location, and helping in avoiding highly calcified areas, which usually are displayed in ultrasound imaging as highly scattering regions.
Jovana Janjic, Frits Mastik, Merel Leistikow, Johannes G. Bosch, Antonius F. W. van der Steen, and Gijs van Soest, "Imaging with a single-element forward-looking steerable IVUS catheter using optical shape sensing (Conference Presentation)," Proc. SPIE 10135, Medical Imaging 2017: Image-Guided Procedures, Robotic Interventions, and Modeling, 101350Z (Presented at SPIE Medical Imaging: February 15, 2017; Published: 26 April 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2254030.5361903579001.
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