Real-time three-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (RT3D-TEE) is increasingly used during minimally invasive cardiac surgeries (MICS). In many cath labs, RT3D-TEE is already one of the requisite tools for
image guidance during MICS. However, the visualization of the catheter is not always satisfactory making 3D-
TEE challenging to use as the only modality for guidance. We propose a novel technique for better visualization
of the catheter along with the cardiac anatomy using TEE alone - exploiting both beamforming and post processing methods. We extended our earlier method called Delay and Standard Deviation (DASD) beamforming
to 3D in order to enhance specular reflections. The beam-formed image was further post-processed by the Frangi
filter to segment the catheter. Multi-variate visualization techniques enabled us to render both the standard
tissue and the DASD beam-formed image on a clinical ultrasound scanner simultaneously. A frame rate of 15
FPS was achieved.
Pawel Kozlowski, Raja Sekhar Bandaru, Jan D'hooge, and Eigil Samset, "Real-time catheter localization and visualization using three-dimensional echocardiography," Proc. SPIE 10135, Medical Imaging 2017: Image-Guided Procedures, Robotic Interventions, and Modeling, 1013518 (Presented at SPIE Medical Imaging: February 16, 2017; Published: 3 March 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2253835.
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