Fluoroscopic image guidance for minimally invasive procedures in the thorax and abdomen suffers from respiratory and cardiac motion, which can cause severe subtraction artifacts and inaccurate image guidance. This work proposes novel techniques for respiratory motion tracking in native fluoroscopic images as well as a model based estimation of vessel deformation. This would allow compensation for respiratory motion during the procedure and therefore simplify the workflow for minimally invasive procedures such as liver embolization. The method first establishes dynamic motion models for both the contrast-enhanced vasculature and curvilinear background features based on a native (non-contrast) and a contrast-enhanced image sequence acquired prior to device manipulation, under free breathing conditions. The model of vascular motion is generated by applying the diffeomorphic demons algorithm to an automatic segmentation of the subtraction sequence. The model of curvilinear background features is based on feature tracking in the native sequence. The two models establish the relationship between the respiratory state, which is inferred from curvilinear background features, and the vascular morphology during that same respiratory state. During subsequent fluoroscopy, curvilinear feature detection is applied to determine the appropriate vessel mask to display. The result is a dynamic motioncompensated vessel mask superimposed on the fluoroscopic image. Quantitative evaluation of the proposed methods was performed using a digital 4D CT-phantom (XCAT), which provides realistic human anatomy including sophisticated respiratory and cardiac motion models. Four groups of datasets were generated, where different parameters (cycle length, maximum diaphragm motion and maximum chest expansion) were modified within each image sequence. Each group contains 4 datasets consisting of the initial native and contrast enhanced sequences as well as a sequence, where the respiratory motion is tracked. The respiratory motion tracking error was between 1.00 % and 1.09 %. The estimated dynamic vessel masks yielded a Sørensen-Dice coefficient between 0.94 and 0.96. Finally, the accuracy of the vessel contours was measured in terms of the 99th percentile of the error, which ranged between 0.64 and 0.96 mm. The presented results show that the approach is feasible for respiratory motion tracking and compensation and could therefore considerably improve the workflow of minimally invasive procedures in the thorax and abdomen
Martin G. Wagner, Paul F. Laeseke, Tilman Schubert, Jordan M. Slagowski, Michael A. Speidel, and Charles A. Mistretta, "Feature-based respiratory motion tracking in native fluoroscopic sequences for dynamic roadmaps during minimally invasive procedures in the thorax and abdomen," Proc. SPIE 10135, Medical Imaging 2017: Image-Guided Procedures, Robotic Interventions, and Modeling, 101351H (Presented at SPIE Medical Imaging: February 16, 2017; Published: 3 March 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2254148.
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