Blood flow rate is a critical parameter for diagnosing dialysis access function during fistulography where a flow rate of 600 ml/min in arteriovenous graft or 400-500 ml/min in arteriovenous fistula is considered the clinical threshold for fully functioning access. In this study, a flow rate computational model for calculating intra-access flow to evaluate dialysis access patency was developed and validated in an in vitro set up using digital subtraction angiography. Flow rates were computed by tracking the bolus through two regions of interest using cross correlation (XCOR) and mean arrival time (MAT) algorithms, and correlated versus an in-line transonic flow meter measurement. The mean difference (mean ± standard deviation) between XCOR and in-line flow measurements for in vitro setup at 3, 6, 7.5 and 10 frames/s was 118±63; 37±59; 31±31; and 46±57 ml/min respectively while for MAT method it was 86±56; 57±72; 35±85; and 19±129 ml/min respectively. The result of this investigation will be helpful for selecting candidate algorithms while blood flow computational tool is developed for clinical application.
Nischal Koirala, Randolph M. Setser, Jennifer Bullen, and Gordon McLennan, "Blood flow measurement using digital subtraction angiography for assessing hemodialysis access function," Proc. SPIE 10137, Medical Imaging 2017: Biomedical Applications in Molecular, Structural, and Functional Imaging, 101370J (Presented at SPIE Medical Imaging: February 13, 2017; Published: 13 March 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2253929.
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Study of self-shadowing effect as a simple means to realize nanostructured thin films and layers with special attentions to birefringent obliquely deposited thin films and photo-luminescent porous silicon