The main challenge in ArF lithography is to reduce cost of ownership (CoO) because increase in multi-patterning process is generally required to obtain a fine pattern. As a consequence, industry strongly requires ArF lithography process with a fast scan speed scanner and low defectivity material for CoO. The breakthrough technology to improve defectivity and resolution simultaneously was the polarity-change property of film surface from hydrophobic to hydrophilic after alkaline development process because a property after development process should be only associated with defectivity, not fast scan speed. The materials with high polarity change function were explored to EUV process to achieve low defectivity with good lithography performances.
Michihiro Shirakawa, Hideaki Tsubaki, Hajime Furutani, Wataru Nihashi, Naohiro Tango, Kazuhiro Marumo, Kei Yamamoto, Hidenori Takahashi, Akiyoshi Goto, and Mitsuhiro Fujita, "Challenges and progress in low defectivity for advanced ArF and EUV lithography processes using surface localized material technology," Proc. SPIE 10146, Advances in Patterning Materials and Processes XXXIV, 101460E (Presented at SPIE Advanced Lithography: February 28, 2017; Published: 27 March 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2257956.
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Study of self-shadowing effect as a simple means to realize nanostructured thin films and layers with special attentions to birefringent obliquely deposited thin films and photo-luminescent porous silicon