Directed self-assembly of block copolymers is considered one of the candidates to fulfill the requirements of the next technological nodes [1,2]. Polymer domains are aligned by using a chemical and/or a topographical pre-pattern in which preferential surfaces to one of the two blocks or neutral wetting areas are created. In particular, polystyrene-block-polymetylmethacrylate (PS-b-PMMA) has been extensively studied during the last years showing strong capabilities to define periodic nanostructures. However, the relatively low Flory-Huggins parameter and, the resulting low segregation strength of PS-b-PMMA systems, limit their achievable resolution to around 11 nm . The application of block copolymer on sub-10 nm technologies requires the development of the new block copolymer generation known as high- block copolymers. Additionally, an important requirement for their integration on the lithography roadmap is the capability of selectively remove one of the two blocks. The etch contrast between the two domains is typically low due to their organic chemistry. In this sense, selective sequential infiltration synthesis by ALD into one of the blocks can be used in order to incorporate an inorganic material. The formed organic/inorganic blend sustains better the plasma etching to remove the non-infiltrated organic block.
In this contribution, we show the use of high- polystyrene-b-polylactide acid (PS-b-PLA) lamellar block copolymer for line/space applications. PS-b-PLA has a larger Flory-Huggins parameter (=0.218 at room temperature) compared with PS-b-PMMA, allowing the size reduction of the self-assembled domains. The method to control the orientation of the polymer domains is similar to the one typically used for PS-b-PMMA. Chemical contrast and the subsequent alignment of the polymer domains are achieved by the definition of a chemical pre-pattern on a random copolymer PS-r-PMMA (48% of PS) (figure 1). The polymer brush is grafted on the substrate and then locally modified by the combination of e-beam lithography and soft oxygen plasma. Afterwards, the PS-b-PLA block copolymer is spin-coated and thermally annealed on the chemically pre-patterned substrate. A chemical contrast is observed between the modified and unmodified stripes. While, the lamellar domains are oriented perpendicular to the substrate on unmodified areas, PLA domains are strongly attracted to the O2 modified surfaces inducing a parallel orientation to the substrate. Additionally, the wetting behavior of the polymer domains is also studied through the difference of surface free energy between the substrate and each polymer block. The energy estimated by the Young´s equation [Δγ =γSA -γSB= γAB·cos(ØAB)], where γSA and γSB are the interface tensions between homo-polymers A and B with the substrate, and ØAB is the contact angle between A and B homo-polymers which is obtained in de-wetting experiments.
Finally, sequential infiltration synthesis is used to selectively infiltrate alumina (Al3O2) on PLA domains (figure 2). A selective infiltration is achieved because the precursor molecules react with the carbonyl (C=O) groups that are only present in the PLA block. After five cycles of SIS, the SIS modified PLA domains become more resistant to O2 plasma etching than PS enabling the PS etching without using other kind of hard-masks.
The research leading to these results received funding from the European Union’s Seventh Framework Program FP7/2007-2013, under the project CoLiSA and the European Nanoelectronics Initiative Advisory Council under the project PLACYD (ENIAC-2013-2). L. Evangelio acknowledges MECD for the PhD contract FPU13/03746
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Laura Evangelio Araujo, Marta Fernández-Regúlez, Xavier Chevalier, Célia Nicolet, Ian Cayrefourcq, Christophe Navarro, Guillaume Fleury, and Francesc Pérez-Murano, "Use of sequential infiltration synthesis to improve the pattern transfer of PS-b-PLA DSA (Conference Presentation)," Proc. SPIE 10146, Advances in Patterning Materials and Processes XXXIV, 101460S (Presented at SPIE Advanced Lithography: March 01, 2017; Published: 25 May 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2258132.5402356043001.
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