We analyzed the field contrast, aspect ratio, pattern uniformity as well as the line-edge roughness (LER) of the patterns
fabricated in plasmonic lithography. Deep subwavelength patterns with high aspect-ratio and large-area uniformity
were achieved by coupling the evanescent waves into an optical waveguide as well as the selection of a single high
spatial frequency mode. In addition, the impacts of defects on photomasks and the surface roughness on thin films are
studied in two exemplary plasmonic lithography systems: superlens and hyperbolic metamaterials (HMM). Superlens
is capable of replicating arbitrary patterns, which also inherently make it vulnerable to roughness of the thin film and
imperfections on the mask; while HMM system is more immune to such imperfections due to its spatial frequency
selection function property.
Xi Chen, Gaofeng Liang, and L. Jay Guo, "Performance analyses of plasmonic lithography," Proc. SPIE 10147, Optical Microlithography XXX, 101470U (Presented at SPIE Advanced Lithography: March 02, 2017; Published: 28 March 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2257912.
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