In this paper, we discuss the development of models for PZT bimorph actuators used to power micro-air vehicles including Robobee. Due to the highly dynamic drive regimes required for the actuators, models must quantify the nonlinear, hysteretic, and rate-dependent behavior inherent to PZT. We first employ the homogenized energy model (HEM) framework to model the actuator dynamics. This provides a comprehensive model, which can be inverted and implemented for certain control regimes. We additionally discuss the development of data-driven models and focus on the implementation of a model based on a dynamic mode decomposition (DMD). Finally, we detail attributes of both approaches for uncertainty quantification and real-time control implementation.
Nikolas Bravo, Ralph C. Smith, and John Crews, "Surrogate model development and feedforward control implementation for PZT bimorph actuators employed for robobee," Proc. SPIE 10165, Behavior and Mechanics of Multifunctional Materials and Composites 2017, 101650A (Presented at SPIE Smart Structures and Materials + Nondestructive Evaluation and Health Monitoring: March 26, 2017; Published: 11 April 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2259948.
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