Synthetic jet actuators are of interest for potential applications to active flow control and thermal management. Resonant
piezoelectric-diaphragm-type configurations are commonly considered. Modeling of such actuators remains a challenge
due to complexities associated with both electro-elastic and fluid-structure coupling, as well as potential non-linearities
in both. A key metric for synthetic jet performance is the time-averaged jet momentum. Linear lumped-element
modeling is an approach that has demonstrated the ability to predict jet momentum in terms of input frequency and
voltage; however, it neglects nonlinearity and increasing losses at high amplitude. Full electro-elastic-fluidic finite
element modeling makes the most accurate prediction but is computationally expensive for design and optimization
purposes. The assumed-modes method provides an energy-based low-order model which captures electro-elastic and
acoustic-structure couplings with adequate accuracy. Tri-laminar circular plates under clamped boundary conditions
were modeled using the assumed-modes method. Maximization of jet momentum is considered via the maximization of
surrogate device metrics: free volume displacement, effective blocking pressure, strain energy, and device coupling
coefficient. The driving frequency of the actuator is treated as a constraint in the optimization which nominally matches
the fundamental acoustic natural frequency of the cylindrical cavity. Device configurations were obtained for various
polycrystalline and single crystal piezoelectric materials, driven at 10% of their coercive fields in the model. The optimal
configurations approximate a simply-supported circular plate with complete piezo coverage. The relative merits of
individual materials were also discerned from the optimization results. The low mechanical loss factor of PZT8 enables
high output at resonance, while high loss factor and low stiffness limit the utility of PVDF in this application. Due to a
combination of lower loss factor and higher coupling, single crystal materials modestly outperform PZT5A.
Tianliang Yu, George A. Lesieutre, Steven F. Griffin, Daniel P. Brzozowski, and Aaron M. Sassoon, "Bimorph-driven synthetic jet actuators optimized for various piezoelectric materials using a low-order model," Proc. SPIE 10166, Industrial and Commercial Applications of Smart Structures Technologies 2017, 101660B (Presented at SPIE Smart Structures and Materials + Nondestructive Evaluation and Health Monitoring: March 26, 2017; Published: 4 April 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2263359.
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