158 kg sapphire single crystals were grown by horizontal directional solidification method. Bubble-free panels with usable rectangular dimensions of 457 mm x 914 mm x 38 mm (18 x 36 x 1.5 inches) can be cut from the crystals. These are the largest-area sapphire panels ever produced by any technique. Bubble-free sections of the crystal 300 mm x 457 mm and up to 60 mm thick (12 x 18 x 2.36 inches) can also be produced. Growths were performed with graphite heating elements under a controlled atmosphere with automated power control. Results of transmission measurements performed on 5 mm thick samples are presented and the transmission is similar to sapphire grown by other techniques.
Matthew Montgomery and Clark Blockburger, "18x36x1.5 inch sapphire panels for visible and infrared windows," Proc. SPIE 10179, Window and Dome Technologies and Materials XV, 101790N (Presented at SPIE Defense + Security: April 12, 2017; Published: 3 May 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2269465.
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Study of self-shadowing effect as a simple means to realize nanostructured thin films and layers with special attentions to birefringent obliquely deposited thin films and photo-luminescent porous silicon