Ricor Systems has developed a compact, single stage cryopump that fills the gap where GM and other type cryopumps can't fit in. Stirling cycle technology is highly efficient and is the primary cryogenic technology for use in IR, SWIR, HOT FPA, and other IR detector technology in military, security, and aerospace applications. Current GM based dual stage cryopumps have been the legacy type water vapor pumping system for more than 50 years. However, the typically large cryopanel head, compressor footprint, and power requirements make them not cost and use effective for small, tabletop evaporation / sputtering systems, portable analysis systems, and other systems requiring small volume vacuum creation from medium, high, and UHV levels. This single stage cryopump works well in-line with diffusion and molecular turbopumps. Studies have shown effective cooperation with non-evaporable getter technology as well for UHV levels. Further testing in this area are ongoing. Temperatures created by Stirling cycle cryogenic coolers develop a useful temperature range of 40 to 150K. Temperatures of approximately 100 K are sufficient to condense water and all hydrocarbons oil vapors.
Rodney S. Harris, Ilan Nachman, Tomer Tauber, Michael Kootzenko, Boris Barak, Eli Aminov, and Dan Gover, "Ricor's Nanostar water vapor compact cryopump: applications and model overview," Proc. SPIE 10180, Tri-Technology Device Refrigeration (TTDR) II, 101800K (Presented at SPIE Defense + Security: April 12, 2017; Published: 5 May 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2262483.
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Study of self-shadowing effect as a simple means to realize nanostructured thin films and layers with special attentions to birefringent obliquely deposited thin films and photo-luminescent porous silicon