Lidar remote sensing based on visible wavelength is one of the only way to penetrate the water surface and to obtain range resolved information of the ocean surface mixed layer at the synoptic scale. Accurate measurement of the mixed layer properties is important for ocean weather forecast and to assist the optimal deployment of military assets. Turbulence within the mixed layer also plays an important role in climate variability as it also influences ocean heat storage and algae photosynthesis (Sverdrup 1953, Behrenfeld 2010).
As of today, mixed layer depth changes are represented in the models through various parameterizations constrained mostly by surface properties like wind speed, surface salinity and sea surface temperature. However, cooling by wind and rain can create strong gradients (0.5C) of temperature between the submillimeter surface layer and the subsurface layer (Soloviev and Lukas, 1997) which will manifest itself as a low temperature bias in the observations.
Temperature and salinity profiles are typically used to characterize the mixed layer variability (de Boyer Montégut et al. 2004) and are both key components of turbulence characterization (Hou 2009). Recently, several research groups have been investigating ocean temperature profiling with laser remote sensing based either on Brillouin (Fry 2012, Rudolf and Walther 2014) or Raman scattering (Artlett and Pask 2015, Lednev et al. 2016). It is the continuity of promising research that started decades ago (Leonard et al. 1979, Guagliardo and Dufilho 1980, Hirschberg et al. 1984) and can benefit from the current state of laser and detector technology.
One aspect of this research that has not been overlooked (Artlett and Pask 2012) but has yet to be revisited is the impact of temperature on vibrational Raman polarization (Chang and Young, 1972).
The TURBulence Ocean Lidar is an experimental system, aimed at characterizing underwater turbulence by examining various Stokes parameters. Its multispectral capability in both emission (based on an optical parametric oscillator) and detection (optical filters) provide flexibility to measure the polarization signature of both elastic and inelastic scattering.
We will present the characteristics of TURBOL and several results from our laboratory and field experiments with an emphasis on temperature profiling capabilities based on vibrational Raman polarization. We will also present other directions of research related to this activity.
Damien B. Josset, Weilin W. Hou, Wesley Goode, Silvia C. Matt, and Yongxiang Hu, "Assessment of lidar remote sensing capability of Raman water temperature from laboratory and field experiments (Conference Presentation)," Proc. SPIE 10186, Ocean Sensing and Monitoring IX, 101860Q (Presented at SPIE Defense + Security: April 12, 2017; Published: 7 June 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2264653.5458109095001.
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