Advanced X-ray Material Discrimination (AXMD) or BAA 13-05 was a broad agency announcement which was initiated in order to develop solutions to the following problem. The emergence of improvised explosive threats and their use by terrorists has placed many challenges on the aviation security screening layers. EDS and AT X-ray equipment have been presented with considerable challenges in developing a broad detection capability for improvised explosive threats during security screening of checked bags and carry-on items. Technologies are needed that increase the measurement or mathematical discrimination between improvised explosive threats and stream-of-commerce clutter in checked baggage and carry-on items. Conventional EDS utilizes two basic discriminating signatures: effective atomic number and density of screened objects. R and D is needed to identify additional discriminating signatures between improvised explosive threats and stream-of commerce clutter to improve detection capability with reduced false alarm rates. DHS S and T EXD along with stakeholders at the TSA, TSL, and the UK Home Office have been successful in funding efforts to address and potentially provide operational solutions which can be deployed as part of the Next Generation of X-ray Technologies.
Sharene Young and Amit Ashok, "Lessons learned in the execution of advanced x-ray material discrimination (Conference Presentation)," Proc. SPIE 10187, Anomaly Detection and Imaging with X-Rays (ADIX) II, 1018702 (Presented at SPIE Defense + Security: April 12, 2017; Published: 7 June 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2266692.5458109104001.
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