This paper describes a comprehensive modeling approach for infrasonic (sub-audible acoustic) signals, which starts with an accurate representation of the source spectrum and directivity, propagates the signals through the environment, and senses and processes the signals at the receiver. The calculations are implemented within EASEE (Environmental Awareness for Sensor and Emitter Employment), which is a general software framework for modeling the impacts of terrain and weather on target signatures and the performance of a diverse range of battlefield sensing systems, including acoustic, seismic, RF, visible, and infrared. At each stage in the modeling process, the signals are described by realistic statistical distributions. Sensor performance is quantified using statistical metrics such as probability of detection and target location error. To extend EASEE for infrasonic calculations, new feature sets were created including standard octaves and one-third octaves. A library of gunfire and blast noise spectra and directivity functions was added from ERDC’s BNOISE (Blast Noise) and SARNAM (Small Arms Range Noise Assessment Model) software. Infrasonic propagation modeling is supported by extension of several existing propagation algorithms, including a basic ground impedance model, and the Green’s function parabolic equation (GFPE), which provides accurate numerical solutions for wave propagation in a refractive atmosphere. The BNOISE propagation algorithm, which is based on tables generated by a fast-field program (FFP), was also added. Finally, an extensive library of transfer functions for microphones operating in the infrasonic range were added, which interface to EASEE’s sensor performance algorithms. Example calculations illustrate terrain and atmospheric impacts on infrasonic signal propagation and the directivity characteristics of blast noise.
Danney R. Glaser, D. Keith Wilson, Lauren E. Waldrop, Carl R. Hart, Michael J. White, Edward T. Nykaza, and Michelle E. Swearingen, "Modeling of signal propagation and sensor performance for infrasound and blast noise," Proc. SPIE 10190, Ground/Air Multisensor Interoperability, Integration, and Networking for Persistent ISR VIII, 1019014 (Presented at SPIE Defense + Security: April 12, 2017; Published: 4 May 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2262683.
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