In this paper, numerous inkjet-/3D-/4D-printed wearable flexible antennas, RF electronics, modules and sensors fabricated on paper and other polymer (e.g. LCP) substrates are introduced as a system-level solution for ultra-low-cost mass production of autonomous Biomonitoring, Positioning and Sensing applications. This paper briefly discusses the state-of-the-art area of fully-integrated wearable wireless sensor modules on paper or flexible LCP and show the first ever 4D sensor module integration on paper, as well as numerous 3D and 4D multilayer paper-based and LCP-based RF/microwave, flexible and wearable structures, that could potentially set the foundation for the truly convergent wireless sensor ad-hoc “on-body networks of the future with enhanced cognitive intelligence and “rugged” packaging. Also, some challenges concerning the power sources of “nearperpetual” wearable RF modules, including flexible miniaturized batteries as well as power-scavenging approaches involving electromagnetic and solar energy forms are discuessed. The final step of the paper will involve examples from mmW wearable (e.g. biomonitoring) antennas and RF modules, as well as the first examples of the integration of inkjet-printed nanotechnology-based (e.g.CNT) sensors on paper and organic substrates for Internet of Things (IoT) applications. It has to be noted that the paper will review and present challenges for inkjetprinted organic active and nonlinear devices as well as future directions in the area of environmentally-friendly “green”) wearable RF electronics and “smart-skin conformal sensors.
Jo Bito, Ryan Bahr, Jimmy Hester, John Kimionis, Abdullah Nauroze, Wenjing Su, Bijan Tehrani, and Manos M. Tentzeris, "Inkjet-/3D-/4D-printed autonomous wearable RF modules for biomonitoring, positioning and sensing applications," Proc. SPIE 10194, Micro- and Nanotechnology Sensors, Systems, and Applications IX, 101940Z (Presented at SPIE Defense + Security: April 10, 2017; Published: 18 May 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2262795.
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