Recent advances in remote sensing technology have expanded the acquisition and fusion of active lidar and passive hyperspectral imagery (HSI) from exclusively airborne observations to include terrestrial modalities. In contrast to airborne collection geometry, hyperspectral imagery captured from terrestrial cameras is prone to extensive solar shadowing on vertical surfaces leading to reductions in pixel classification accuracies or outright removal of shadowed areas from subsequent analysis tasks. We demonstrate the use of lidar spatial information for sub-pixel HSI shadow detection and the restoration of shadowed pixel spectra via empirical methods that utilize sunlit and shadowed pixels of similar material composition. We examine the effectiveness of radiometrically calibrated lidar intensity in identifying these similar materials in sun and shade conditions and further evaluate a restoration technique that leverages ratios derived from the overlapping lidar laser and HSI wavelengths. Simulations of multiple lidar wavelengths, i.e., multispectral lidar, indicate the potential for HSI spectral restoration that is independent of the complexity and costs associated with rigorous radiometric transfer models, which have yet to be developed for horizontal-viewing terrestrial HSI sensors. The spectral restoration performance of shadowed HSI pixels is quantified for imagery of a geologic outcrop through improvements in spectral shape, spectral scale, and HSI band correlation.
Preston J. Hartzell, Craig L. Glennie, David C. Finnegan, and Darren L. Hauser, "Terrestrial hyperspectral image shadow restoration through fusion with terrestrial lidar," Proc. SPIE 10198, Algorithms and Technologies for Multispectral, Hyperspectral, and Ultraspectral Imagery XXIII, 1019810 (Presented at SPIE Defense + Security: April 12, 2017; Published: 5 May 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2262686.
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