From Event: SPIE Commercial + Scientific Sensing and Imaging, 2017
InAs avalanche photodiodes (APDs) can be designed such that only electrons are allowed to initiate impact ionization, leading to the lowest possible excess noise factor. Optimization of wet chemical etching and surface passivation produced mesa APDs with bulk dominated dark current and responsivity that are comparable and higher, respectively, than a commercial InAs detector. Our InAs electron-APDs also show high stability with fluctuation of ~0.1% when operated at a gain of 11.2 over 60 s. These InAs APDs can detect very weak signal down to ~35 photons per pulse. Fabrication of planar InAs by Be implantation produced planar APDs with bulk dominated dark current. Annealing at 550 °C was necessary to remove implantation damage and to activate Be dopants. Due to minimal diffusion of Be, thick depletion of 8 μm was achieved. Since the avalanche gain increases exponentially with the thickness of avalanche region, our planar APD achieved high gain > 300 at 200 K. Our work suggest that both mesa and planar InAs APDs can exhibit high gain. When combined with a suitable preamplifier, single photon detection using InAs electron-APDs could be achieved.
Chee Hing Tan, Jo Shien Ng, Xinxin Zhou, John David, Shiyong Zhang, and Andrey Krysa, "Progress in low light-level InAs detectors- towards Geiger-mode detection," Proc. SPIE 10212, Advanced Photon Counting Techniques XI, 102120G (Presented at SPIE Commercial + Scientific Sensing and Imaging: April 13, 2017; Published: 1 May 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2262469.
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