The electromagnetic wave impinging on the spatially modulated two-dimensional electron liquid (2DEL) induces a direct current (DC) when the wave amplitude modulated with the same wave vector as the 2DEL but is shifted in phase (the ratchet effect). The recent theory of this phenomenon predicted a dramatic enhancement at the plasmonic resonances and a non-trivial polarization dependence . We will present the results of the numerical simulations using a hydrodynamic model exploring the helicity dependence of the DC current for silicon, InGaAs, and GaN metamaterial structures at cryogenic and room temperatures. In particular we will report on the effect of the DEL viscosity and explore the nonlinear effects at large amplitudes of the helical electromagnetic radiation impinging on the ratchet structures. We will then discuss the applications of the ratchet effect for terahertz metamaterials in order to realize ultra-sensitive terahertz (THz) radiation detectors, modulators, phase shifters, and delay lines with cross sections matching the terahertz wavelength and capable of determining the electromagnetic wave polarization and helicity. To this end, we propose and analyze the four contact ratchet devices capable of registering the two perpendicular components of the electric currents induced by the elliptically or circularly polarized radiation and analyze the load impedance effects in the structures optimized for the ratchet metamaterial THz components. The analysis is based on the hydrodynamic model suitable for the multi-gated semiconductor structures, coupled self-consistently with Poisson’s equation for the electric potential. The model accounts for the effects of pressure gradients and 2DEL viscosity. Our numerical solutions are applicable to the wide ranges of electron mobility and terahertz power.
 I. V. Rozhansky, V. Yu. Kachorovskii, and M. S. Shur, Helicity-Driven Ratchet Effect Enhanced by Plasmons, Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 246601, 15 June 2015
Sergey Rudin, Greg Rupper, Valentin Kachorovski, and Michael S. Shur, "Detection of terahertz radiation in metamaterials: giant plasmonic ratchet effect (Conference Presentation)," Proc. SPIE 10227, Metamaterials XI, 102270Y (Presented at SPIE Optics + Optoelectronics: April 27, 2017; Published: 8 June 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2265713.5463341878001.
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