Metallic nanoantenna possess versatile scattering properties enabling to engineer the emission directionality at the nanoscale. However, due to their Ohmic losses and low heat resistance they cannot be practically applied in nonlinear optical processes for optical frequency conversion. Dielectric nanoparticles, e.g. silicon and germanium, are good candidates to overcome these limitations [1, 2]. Nevertheless, the centrosymmetric nature of these materials have voided the second-harmonic generation (SHG). Alternatively, the use of GaAs-based III-V semiconductors, with non-centrosymmetric structures, can overcome this difficulty [3,4]. However, fabrication of III-V semiconductor nanoantennas on low refractive index substrates remains very challenging, blocking the possibility to explore the SHG directionality in both forward and backward direction. Here, for the first time to our knowledge, we design and fabricate high-quality AlGaAs nanostructures on a glass substrate. Through this novel platform, we manage to excite, control and detect backward and forward nonlinear signals by SHG in AlGaAs nanodisks [5,6]. In particular, we observe that for certain size of nanoantenna, the SHG emission has a complex spatial distribution polarization state corresponding to radial polarization in the forward direction and a polarization state of a more general nature in the backward direction. Furthermore, we demonstrate an unprecedented SHG conversion efficiency of 10-4. Our breakthrough can open new avenues for enhancing the performance of photodetection, light emission and sensing.v
Maria del Rocio Camacho Morales, Mohsen Rahmani, Sergey S. Kruk, Lei Wang, Lei Xu, Daria A. Smirnova, Alexander S. Solntsev, Andrey E. Miroshnichenko, Hark Hoe Tan, Fouad Karouta, Shagufta Naureen, Kaushal D. Vora, Luca Carletti, Costantino De Angelis, Chennupati Jagadish, Yuri S. Kivshar, and Dragomir N. Neshev, "Highly directional second-harmonic generation from AlGaAs nanoparticles (Conference Presentation)," Proc. SPIE 10228, Nonlinear Optics and Applications X, 102280H (Presented at SPIE Optics + Optoelectronics: April 25, 2017; Published: 15 August 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2264351.5463341886001.
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