Interest in high-resolution structure investigation has been zealous, especially with the advent of X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs). The intense and ultra-short X-ray laser pulses (~ 10 GW) pave new routes to explore structures and dynamics of single macromolecules, functional nanomaterials and complex electronic materials. In the last several years, we have developed XFEL single-shot diffraction imaging by probing ultrafast phase changes directly. Pump-probe single-shot imaging was realized by synchronizing femtosecond (<10 fs in FWHM) X-ray laser (probe) with femtosecond (50 fs) IR laser (pump) at better than 1 ps resolution. Nanoparticles under intense fs-laser pulses were investigated with fs XFEL pulses to provide insight into the irreversible particle damage processes with nanoscale resolution. Research effort, introduced, aims to extend the current spatio-temporal resolution beyond the present limit. We expect this single-shot dynamic imaging to open new science opportunity with XFELs.
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