We have experimentally measured and characterized a Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) Free Electron
Laser (FEL) in the spectral domain. Spectra were captured for hard X-rays using a pair of transmissive
bent-crystal spectrometers on a single-shot basis. The probability distributions of the spectral intensity as a
function of an increasing bandwidth were studied in different SASE regimes. The number of spectral modes
was found to grow linearly in the exponential growth regime, but the growth became super-linear at saturation
and in deeper saturation, consistent with the current theoretical understanding and simulations. The spectral
intensity fluctuations were found to decrease when a wider portion of the beam (transverse to the direction of
the dispersion) was integrated, indicating a partial spatial coherence, the degree of which was then estimated.
Alberto Lutman, Zhirong Huang, Jacek Krzywinski, Juhao Wu, Diling Zhu, and Yiping Feng, "Statistical characterization of an x-ray FEL in the spectral domain," Proc. SPIE 10237, Advances in X-ray Free-Electron Lasers Instrumentation IV, 102370H (Presented at SPIE Optics + Optoelectronics: April 27, 2017; Published: 23 May 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2268918.
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