Mode-division multiplexing (MDM), which allows different guided modes of a few-mode fiber to carry different signals, is a new technology being actively pursued worldwide to increase the signal-carrying capacity of a fiber. For the development of the MDM technology, many mode-controlling devices are needed, such as mode converters, mode (de)multiplexers, mode filters, and mode-selective switches. Among the various technologies available for the implementation of such devices, the polymer waveguide technology offers many distinct advantages. This paper presents a review of polymer waveguide devices for MDM applications, which include grating-based mode converters, 3D mode (de)multiplexers, graphene-based mode filters, and thermo-optic mode-selective switches.
Kin Seng Chiang, "Polymer optical waveguide devices for mode-division-multiplexing applications," Proc. SPIE 10242, Integrated Optics: Physics and Simulations III, 102420R (Presented at SPIE Optics + Optoelectronics: April 25, 2017; Published: 17 May 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2265275.
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