Among the fourth-generation light sources, the Italian free-electron laser (FEL) FERMI is the only one operating in the high-gain harmonic generation (HGHG) seeding mode. FERMI delivers pulses characterized by a quasi transform limited temporal structure, photon energies lying in the extreme ultra-violet (EUV) region, supreme transversal and longitudinal coherences, high peak brilliance, and full control of the polarization. Such state of the art performances recently opened the doors to a new class of time-resolved spectroscopies, difficult or even impossible to be performed using self-amplified spontaneous sources (SASE) light sources. FERMI is currently equipped with three operating beamlines opened to external users (DiProI, LDM and EIS), while two more are under commissioning (MagneDYN and TeraFERMI). Here, we present the recent highlights of the EIS (Elastic and Inelastic Scattering) beamline, which has been purposely designed to take full advantage from the coherence, the intensity, the harmonics content, and the temporal duration of the pulses. EIS is a flexible experimental facility for time-resolved EUV scattering experiments on condensed matter systems, consisting of two independent end-stations. The first one (EIS-TIMEX) aims to study materials in metastable and warm dense matter (WDM) conditions, while the second end-station (EIS-TIMER) is fully oriented to the extension of four-wave mixing (FWM) spectroscopies towards the EUV spectral regions, trying to reveal the behavior of matter in portions of the mesoscopic regime of exchanged momentum impossible to be probed using conventional light sources.
A. Simoncig, R. Mincigrucci, E. Principi, F. Bencivenga, A. Calvi, L. Foglia, G. Kurdi, L. Raimondi, M. Manfredda, N. Mahne, R. Gobessi, S. Gerusina, C. Fava, M. Zangrando, A. Matruglio, S. Dal Zilio, V. Masciotti, and C. Masciovecchio, "The EIS beamline at the seeded free-electron laser FERMI," Proc. SPIE 10243, X-ray Lasers and Coherent X-ray Sources: Development and Applications, 102430L (Presented at SPIE Optics + Optoelectronics: April 25, 2017; Published: 18 May 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2268152.
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