The ability to engineer the optical phase at subwavelength dimensions has led to metasurfaces that provide unprecedented control of electromagnetic waves. To reach their ultimate potential, metasurfaces must incorporate reconfigurable functions. The central challenge is achieving large tunability in subwavelength elements. Here, we describe two different approaches for achieving order-unity refractive index shifts: free-carrier refraction and thermo-optic tuning. We experimentally demonstrate wide tuning of single-particle infrared Mie resonances through doping, and demonstrate simulations of electrically reconfigurable III-V heterojunction metasurfaces based on these effects. We conclude with recent experimental demonstrations of dyamic, ultrawide tuning of Mie resonators based on two distinct thermo-optic effects: 1) modifying the electron mass and carrier density in InSb and 2) exploiting the anomalous temperature-dependent bandgap of PbTe.
Jon A. Schuller, "Widely tunable semiconductor antennas for reconfigurable metasurfaces (Conference Presentation)," Proc. SPIE 10343, Metamaterials, Metadevices, and Metasystems 2017, 103430C (Presented at SPIE Nanoscience + Engineering: August 06, 2017; Published: 21 September 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2272838.5583313083001.
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