Luminescence of a single upconverting particle (NaYF4:Er3+,Yb3+) can be used to determine the optical trap temperature due to the partial absorption of the trapping beam either by the medium (water) or the optically trapped particle itself. This fact is an important drawback can be reduced by shifting the trapping wavelength out of the water absorption band, or by using time-modulated laser trapping beams. Both approaches have been studied and the results have shown that the thermal loading due to the trapping radiation can be minimized.
Paloma Rodríguez-Sevilla, Yuhai Zhang, Patricia Haro-González, Francisco Sanz-Rodríguez, Francisco Jaque, José García Sole, Xiaogang Liu, and Daniel Jaque, "Avoiding induced heating in optical trap," Proc. SPIE 10347, Optical Trapping and Optical Micromanipulation XIV, 1034716 (Presented at SPIE Nanoscience + Engineering: August 07, 2017; Published: 25 August 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2276355.
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