A series of bilayer films were prepared by vacuum deposition onto Silicon substrates. These films consisted of either Si/SiO2/donor/C60 or Si/SiO2/C60/donor, where the organic films were in the 20-40 nm thick range and the donors were 7,7-difluoro-14-phenyl-7H-6l4,7l4-[1,3,2]diazaborinino[4,3-a:6,1-a']diisoindole (bDIP), copper phthalocyanine (CuPC), 3,6,11,14-tetraphenyldiindeno[1,2,3-cd:1',2',3'-lm]perylene (DBP) and 2-(4-(diphenylamino)-2,6- dihydroxyphenyl)-4-(4-(diphenyliminio)-2,6-dihydroxycyclohexa-2,5-dien-1-ylidene)-3-oxocyclobut-1-en-1-olate (DPSQ). The donors chosen here have been reported to give good power efficiencies when incorporated into bilayer photovoltaic cells with a C60 acceptor. These bilayer films were examined by neutron reflectometry to characterize the interface between the donor and C60. In the SiO2/donor/C60 films, DPSQ, CuPC, and DBP show a discrete interface with C60 while bDIP shows substantial spontaneous mixing at the interface, consistent with a donor/(donor + C60)/C60 structure, where the mixed layer is 14 nm.. In the SiO2/C60/donor films, all four donors show negligible mixing at the D/A interface consistent with a discrete D/A junction.
Patrick Erwin, Michael Dimitriou, and Mark E. Thompson, "Morphology of the D/A interface in vapor deposited bilayer organic photovoltaics," Proc. SPIE 10348, Physical Chemistry of Semiconductor Materials and Interfaces XVI, 103480M (Presented at SPIE Nanoscience + Engineering: August 08, 2017; Published: 24 August 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2273446.
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