Nanostructures allow broad spectrum and near-unity optical absorption and contributed to high performance low-cost Si photovoltaic devices. However, the efficiency is only a few percent higher than a conventional Si solar cell with thicker absorption layers. For high speed surface illuminated photodiodes, the thickness of the absorption layer is critical for short transit time and RC time. Recently a CMOS-compatible micro/nanohole silicon (Si) photodiode (PD) with more than 20 Gb/s data rate and with 52 % quantum efficiency (QE) at 850 nm was demonstrated. The achieved QE is over 400% higher than a similar Si PD with the same thickness but without absorption enhancement microstructure holes. The micro/nanoholes increases the QE by photon trapping, slow wave effects and generate a collective assemble of modes that radiate laterally, resulting in absorption enhancement and therefore increase in QE. Such Si PDs can be further designed to enhance the bandwidth (BW) of the PDs by reducing the device capacitance with etched holes in the pin junction. Here we present the BW and QE of Si PDs achievable with micro/nanoholes based on a combination of empirical evidence and device modeling. Higher than 50 Gb/s data rate with greater than 40% QE at 850 nm is conceivable in transceivers designed with such Si PDs that are integrated with photon trapping micro and nanostructures. By monolithic integration with CMOS/BiCMOS integrated circuits such as transimpedance amplifiers, equalizers, limiting amplifiers and other application specific integrated circuits (ASIC), the data rate can be increased to more than 50 Gb/s.
Hilal Cansizoglu, Yang Gao, Soroush Ghandiparsi, Ahmet Kaya, Cesar Bartolo Perez, Ahmed Mayet, Ekaterina Ponizovskaya Devine, Mehmet F. Cansizoglu, Toshishige Yamada, Aly F. Elrefaie, Shih-Yuan Wang, and M. Saif Islam, "Improved bandwidth and quantum efficiency in silicon photodiodes using photon-manipulating micro/nanostructures operating in the range of 700-1060 nm," Proc. SPIE 10349, Low-Dimensional Materials and Devices 2017, 103490U (Presented at SPIE Nanoscience + Engineering: August 10, 2017; Published: 25 August 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2276611.
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