In this talk I will present our recent research on the design and preparation of three-dimensional (3D) hierarchical metamaterials and two-dimensional (2D) hierarchical metasurfaces as novel SERS substrates with ultrahigh sensitivity and reproducibility. The former substrate consists of close-packed arrays of nanoholes and uniformly distributed mesopores over the bulk and the second comprised of sub-wavelength-sized conical nanopores and sub-5-nm nanogrooves. Both substrates employ a cascaded field enhancement mechanism, leading to the ultrahigh sensitivity, and have a (quasi)periodic arrangement of plasmonic near-field hot-spots, ensuring excellent structural and signal reproducibility. In particular, the latter substrate is highly mechanically flexible, allowing for extreme adaptability to complex working conditions such as build-in real-time monitoring of trace level molecules.
 X. Zhang, Y. Zheng, X. Liu, W. Lu, J. Dai, D. Y. Lei* & D. R. MacFarlane*, “Hierarchical porous plasmonic metamaterials for reproducible ultrasensitive surface-enhanced Raman Spectroscopy”, Advanced Materials 27, 1090-1096 (2015).
 C. Xu, Y. Zhou, S. Lyu, Y.-L. Zhang, H. Yao, D. Mo, J. L. Duan* & D. Y. Lei*, “Highly flexible, hierarchical porous plasmonic metasurfaces for reproducible, ultrasensitive surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy”, under preparation (2017).
 K. Chen, X. Zhang, Y.-L. Zhang, D. Y. Lei, H. Li, T. Williams & D. R. MacFarlane, "Highly ordered Ag/Cu hybrid nanostructure arrays for ultrasensitive surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy", Advanced Materials Interfaces 3, 1600115 (2016).
Dangyuan Lei and Jiyan Dai, "Hierarchical plasmonic metamaterials and metasurfaces for ultrasensitive, reproducible SERS (Conference Presentation)," Proc. SPIE 10350, Nanoimaging and Nanospectroscopy V, 1035004 (Presented at SPIE Nanoscience + Engineering: August 06, 2017; Published: 21 September 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2275406.5583359654001.
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