Three-dimensional (3D) laser lithography has become a versatile, reliable, and widespread workhorse for fabricating 3D micro- and nanostructures. I will illustrate the current state-of-the-art by selected examples, including free-form micro-optics, 3D optical and other metamaterials, as well as functionalized 3D scaffolds for biological cell culture. I will speculate about near-term industrial applications and outline remaining technological challenges regarding spatial resolution, scalability, and multi-material 3D nano-printing.
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