Angled columnar structures produced by oblique angle deposition possess useful optical polarization effects. It is well known that this is due to structural anisotropy but the relative contributions of factors affecting this anisotropy are not fully understood in all cases. Serial bideposited films where the azimuth is changed during deposition can have greater birefringence if the azimuths are directly opposed. In contrast, in this article the properties of perpendicular azimuth films are studied: silicon films at tilt angles 50-80° were deposited and analyzed. Electron microscopy confirmed that the silicon nanostructures were formed off-axis, meaning they did not develop along the deposition axes but followed the averaged azimuth. Optical measurements confirm that the maximum birefringence occurs closer to glancing angles, and optical modelling demonstrates that in contrast to fixed azimuth films the birefringence in these perpendicular azimuth films is primarily modulated by depolarization factors.
Matthew C. Tai, Angus R. Gentle, Matthew D. Arnold, and Geoffrey B. Smith, "Optical anisotropy due to perpendicular azimuth serial bideposition," Proc. SPIE 10356, Nanostructured Thin Films X, 103560L (Presented at SPIE Nanoscience + Engineering: August 10, 2017; Published: 30 August 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2273528.
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