From Event: SPIE Optical Engineering + Applications, 2017
Internal porosity is an inherent phenomenon to many manufacturing processes, such as casting, additive manufacturing, and others. Since these defects cannot be completely avoided by improving production processes, it is important to have a reliable method to detect and evaluate them accurately. The accurate evaluation becomes even more important concerning current industrial trends to minimize size and weight of products on one side, and enhance their complexity and performance on the other. X-ray computed tomography (CT) has emerged as a promising instrument for holistic porosity measurements offering several advantages over equivalent methods already established in the detection of internal defects. The main shortcomings of the conventional techniques pertain to too general information about total porosity content (e.g. Archimedes method) or the destructive way of testing (e.g. microscopy of cross-sections). On the contrary, CT is a nondestructive technique providing complete information about size, shape and distribution of internal porosity. However, due to the lack of international standards and the fact that it is relatively a new measurement technique, CT as a measurement technology has not yet reached maturity. This study proposes a procedure for the establishment of measurement traceability in porosity measurements by CT including the necessary evaluation of measurement uncertainty. The traceability transfer is carried out through a novel reference standard calibrated by optical and tactile coordinate measuring systems. The measurement uncertainty is calculated following international standards and guidelines. In addition, the accuracy of porosity measurements by CT with the associated measurement uncertainty is evaluated using the reference standard.
Petr Hermanek and Simone Carmignato, "Establishment of metrological traceability in porosity measurements by x-ray computed tomography," Proc. SPIE 10391, Developments in X-Ray Tomography XI, 103910N (Presented at SPIE Optical Engineering + Applications: August 09, 2017; Published: 25 September 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2276942.
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