From Event: SPIE Optical Engineering + Applications, 2017
This paper concerns a feasibility study on a 2nd order spherical, or three-dimensional, angular momentum and linear momentum detector for photonic radiation applications. It has been developed in order to obtain a paraxial approximation of physical events observed under Coulomb gauge condition, which is essential to compute both the longitudinal and transverse rotational components of the observed 3-D vortex field, generally neglected by conventional detection systems under current usage. Since light and laser beams are neither full transversal or rotational phenomena, to measure directly and in the same time both the energy, mainly not-rotational, related to the relevant part of the linear momentum and the potential solenoidal energy (vortex), related to the angular momentum, 2nd order spherical, or 3-D, detector techniques are required. In addition, direct 2nd order measure techniques enable development of TEM + DEM  studies, therefore allowing for monochromatic complex wave detection with a paraxial accuracy in the relativistic time-space domain. Light and optic or Electromagnetic 2nd order 3-D AnM energy may usefully be used in tre-dimensional optical TEM, noTEM, DEM vortex or laser communications The paper illustrates an innovative quadratic order 3-D spherical model detector applied to directly measure a light source power spectrum and compares the performances of this innovative technique with those obtained with a traditional 1st order system. Results from a number of test experiments conducted in cooperation with INAF Observatories of ArcetriFlorence and Medicina-Bologna (Italy), and focused on telescopic observations of the inter-stellar electromagnetic radiations, are also summarized. The innovative quadratic-order spherical detector turns out to be optimal for optical and/or radio telescopes application, optical and optoelectronic sensors development and gravitational wave 2nd order detectors implementation. Although the proposed method is very innovative, it shows a very good adherence with results obtained with the conventional techniques in current usage.
Francesco Romano and Rosario F. Cimmino, "Second-order spherical optoelectronic detector for 3D multi-particles wave emission and propagation in space time domains," Proc. SPIE 10401, Astronomical Optics: Design, Manufacture, and Test of Space and Ground Systems, 1040113 (Presented at SPIE Optical Engineering + Applications: August 10, 2017; Published: 5 September 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2274346.
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