From Event: SPIE Optical Engineering + Applications, 2017
First, the emission wavelengths from visible to short-wave infrared are generated by Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) and phosphors which spectrally down convert the higher energy photons from the LED to a lower energy photon distribution. This process is analogous to the commercial lighting industry where blue LEDs are down converted into a distribution that resembles variations of white light. Second, several formats of carbon materials have been combined together into a multi-layer structure so that a highly uniform temperature interface feeds a high emissivity surface of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes. Finally, both of these technologies give rise to a thin profile, layered structure which can be easily mounted on a paddle for movement in and out of the optical path.
James Chow and Edward Ward, "Compact, on-demand broad spectral range (visible to long wave infrared) calibrator (Conference Presentation)," Proc. SPIE 10402, Earth Observing Systems XXII, 104020W (Presented at SPIE Optical Engineering + Applications: August 08, 2017; Published: 19 September 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2276958.5581292824001.
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Study of self-shadowing effect as a simple means to realize nanostructured thin films and layers with special attentions to birefringent obliquely deposited thin films and photo-luminescent porous silicon