From Event: SPIE Optical Engineering + Applications, 2017
A unified treatment of typical optical modulation formats is given toward a future development of the quantum enigma cipher. In our analysis, the intensity shift keying (ISK), amplitude shift keying (ASK), phase shift keying (PSK), and quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) coherent state signals are compared in terms of the masking number of potential signals through the numerical calculations of the square-root measurement. Through this comparison, we see that the use of ISK coherent state signal is the best choice for cryptographic purpose among these formats in achieving an appropriate balance between the number of signal photons and the number of quantum state signals.
Kentaro Kato, "A unified analysis of optical signal modulation formats for quantum enigma cipher," Proc. SPIE 10409, Quantum Communications and Quantum Imaging XV, 104090K (Presented at SPIE Optical Engineering + Applications: August 07, 2017; Published: 30 August 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2272534.
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