Principal Component (PC) compression is the method of choice to achieve band-width reduction for dissemination of hyper spectral (HS) satellite measurements and will become increasingly important with the advent of future HS missions (such as IASI-NG and MTG-IRS) with ever higher data-rates. It is a linear transformation defined by a truncated set of the leading eigenvectors of the covariance of the measurements as well as the mean of the measurements. We discuss the strategy for generation of the eigenvectors, based on the operational experience made with IASI. To compute the covariance and mean, a so-called training set of measurements is needed, which ideally should include all relevant spectral features. For the dissemination of IASI PC scores a global static training set consisting of a large sample of measured spectra covering all seasons and all regions is used. This training set was updated once after the start of the dissemination of IASI PC scores in April 2010 by adding spectra from the 2010 Russian wildfires, in which spectral features not captured by the previous training set were identified. An alternative approach, which has sometimes been proposed, is to compute the eigenvectors on the fly from a local training set, for example consisting of all measurements in the current processing granule. It might naively be thought that this local approach would improve the compression rate by reducing the number of PC scores needed to represent the measurements within each granule. This false belief is apparently confirmed, if the reconstruction scores (root mean square of the reconstruction residuals) is used as the sole criteria for choosing the number of PC scores to retain, which would overlook the fact that the decrease in reconstruction score (for the same number of PCs) is achieved only by the retention of an increased amount of random noise. We demonstrate that the local eigenvectors retain a higher amount of noise and a lower amount of atmospheric signal than global eigenvectors. Local eigenvectors do not increase the compression rate, but increase the amount of atmospheric loss and should be avoided. Only extremely rare situations, resulting in spectra with features which have not been observed previously, can lead to problems for the global approach. To cope with such situations we investigate a hybrid approach, which first apply the global eigenvectors and then apply local compression to the residuals in order to identify and disseminate in addition any directions in the local signal, which are orthogonal to the subspace spanned by the global eigenvectors.
Tim Hultberg, Thomas August, and Flavia Lenti, "Local or global? How to choose the training set for principal component compression of hyperspectral satellite measurements: a hybrid approach," Proc. SPIE 10423, Sensors, Systems, and Next-Generation Satellites XXI, 104231G (Presented at SPIE Remote Sensing: September 13, 2017; Published: 29 September 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2278349.
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