Himalayan Glaciers are a major source of fresh water, and in places are the critical source of water for drinking, irrigation and hydroelectric power generation for South Asia. Modern water resource management requires understanding the volume of source available for a robust planning and development for the future.Glaciers are highly sensitive indicators to any climate change. Contemporary size and volume are critical factors for timely evaluation/assessment for both near-term and long-term changes in both temperature and precipitation and the cryosphere thereupon. Glacier area and surface morphology can be readily mapped from both satellites imagery and aerial photographs. With the help of remotely sensed data and GIS analysis, glacier surface areas have been mapped with mean spatial resolution of 10 meter. The surface mapping with such resolution is neither able to access the exact volume nor determine sensitivity of glacier to the recent climate. Most satellite maps are only two-dimensional mapping of crysophere, but three-dimensional maps of glacier hydrological systems are necessary for volumetric assessment and long-term planning.
Therefore, the integration of survey instrument such as DGPS, Total Station with millimeter accuracy, and simultaneous simulation with Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) surveys over the mapped conduit systems will help in accessing glacier mass accurately and define subsurface geometry for the 3-D modeling of glaciers for better understanding and estimation of water fresh resource. Further, the 3-D mapping of cryosphere will help us to access accurate the volume of fresh water in the Himalayan cryosphere, along with contemporary dynamics. We show an integrated approach to assess and quantify the Himalayan cryosphere by integrating such techniques for a better management and understanding of the Himalayan cryosphere to climatic parameters and management of future water requirements. However, it is an established fact that glaciers show varied sensitivity to climate over the time and space, both in growing and receding.Therefore, monitoring this fresh water resource is most essential for an agrarian country like India where demand for irrigation is great in the Great Plains. Present study will represent the seamless integration of field based 3-D Total station mapping of glacier snout of Gangotri Glacier, GPR Profiling of Glacier at selective locations, Volume estimation and annual change in the volume and its integration with the MODIS LST data in a way to access the present glacier sensitivity to climatic variability, as well as help model future scenario more accurately for robust management of this finite water resource.
Pawan Kumar and Milap C. Sharma, "Fusion of remote sensing, DGPS, total station and GPR data for the3-D mapping of Himalayan cryosphere: application and future potential (Conference Presentation)," Proc. SPIE 10428, Earth Resources and Environmental Remote Sensing/GIS Applications VIII, 104281C (Presented at SPIE Remote Sensing: September 14, 2017; Published: 19 October 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2278324.5618100986001.
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