The purpose of this paper is to present the results obtained from unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) and field spectroscopy campaigns for detecting underground structures. Underground structures can affect their surrounding landscapes in different ways, such as soil moisture content, soil composition and vegetation vigor. The last is often observed on the ground as a crop mark; a phenomenon which can be used as a proxy to denote the presence of underground non-visible structures. A number of vegetation indices such as the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Simple Ratio (SR), Difference Vegetation Index (DVI) and Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI) were utilized for the development of a vegetation index-based procedure aiming at the detection of underground military structures by using existing vegetation indices or other in-band algorithms. The measurements were taken at the following test areas such as: (a) vegetation area covered with the vegetation (barley), in the presence of an underground military structure (b) vegetation area covered with the vegetation (barley), in the absence of an underground military structure.
George Melillos, Kyriacos Themistocleous, Maria Prodromou, and Diofantos G. Hadjimitsis, "Detection of underground structures using UAV and field spectroscopy for defence and security in Cyprus," Proc. SPIE 10438, Emerging Imaging and Sensing Technologies for Security and Defence II, 104380F (Presented at SPIE Security + Defence: September 13, 2017; Published: 6 October 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2279131.
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