Chemically amplified extreme ultraviolet (EUV, ~13.5 nm) photoresists are typically comprised of a photoacid generator (PAG) in a polymer matrix. During the photolithographic process, a photoresist is exposed to EUV photons; it is believed that electrons and holes generated during exposure are the major source of acid production between resist components. It has been shown that more easily reduced PAGs have higher acid yields within the same polymer matrix. This correlation of reducibility vs. acid yield should be consistent between PAGs regardless of the polymer matrix.
This work investigates PAG reducibility compared to acid yield for several PAGs contained in various polymer matrices. Reduction potentials of PAGs are determined through cyclic voltammetry and electrolysis. An acid indicator, coumarin 6, and an established outgassing technique are used to determine the number of acids generated for low energy (80 eV) electron exposures for given polymer matrices. These results are compared to analogous EUV exposures.
Steven Grzeskowiak, Amrit K. Narasimhan, and Gregory H. Denbeaux, "Secondary electron interactions of chemically amplified EUV photoresists (Conference Presentation)," Proc. SPIE 10450, International Conference on Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography 2017, 104500I (Presented at SPIE Photomask Technology and EUV Lithography: September 13, 2017; Published: 16 October 2017); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2281810.5613173292001.
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