Recent translation of multiphoton microscopy to clinical practice raises the possibility of high-resolution in-vivo histology of skin. This is of special interest for cancer diagnostics, because early stages of basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) and malignant melanomas (MM) can be imaged. The novel label-free non-invasive process, called multiphoton tomography (MPT), would reduce the time from consultation to treatment. MPT is a nonlinear laser scanning microscopy technique that features high three-dimensional resolution and label-free molecular contrast. Several endogenous tissue components can be visualized, including collagen (through second-harmonic generation), NAD(P)H, FAD, keratin, melanin, porphyrins, and elastin fibers (through two-photon excited fluorescence). Furthermore, fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) can be employed to detect inflammation sites in patients suffering from dermatitis and chronic wounds. The add-on module CARS (Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Spectroscopy) provides information on the lipid and water distribution. Multimodal MPT is performed in high-tech hospitals in Europe (e.g. Charité/Germany), China, Russia (e.g. Medical Academy, Nizhny Novgorod), Australia (e.g. Princess Alexandra Hospital, Brisbane) and United States (e.g. Beckman Laser Institute and Medical Clinic UCI, Irvine, and University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign).
Karsten König, "State-of-the-art clinical multimodal multi photon / CARS / FLIM tomography of human skin (Conference Presentation)," Proc. SPIE 10467, Photonics in Dermatology and Plastic Surgery 2018, 104670L (Presented at SPIE BiOS: January 28, 2018; Published: 14 March 2018); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2287383.5751314496001.
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