Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been a useful clinical tool for diagnosing coronary artery disease through a flexible catheter, but its full promise relies on resolving cellular and sub-cellular structures in vivo. Previously, visualizing cellular structures through an imaging catheter is not possible due to limited depth of focus (DOF) of a tightly focused Gaussian beam: typically, a Gaussian beam with 2-3 μm resolution has a DOF within 100 μm, which is not sufficient for in vivo catheter imaging. Therefore, we developed a self-imaging wavefront division optical system that generates a coaxially-focused multimode (CAFM) beam with a DOF that is approximately one order of magnitude longer than that of a Gaussian beam. In this study, we present a high-resolution, extended DOF catheter based on self-imaging wavefront division optics. The catheter generates a CAFM beam with a lateral resolution of 3 μm and a DOF close to 2 mm. To correct the aberration introduced by catheter sheath, we incorporated a cylindrical prism to compensate the sheath astigmatism. When the catheter is incorporated into a micro-resolution OCT (μOCT) system with rotational scanning mechanics, cellular-resolution cross-sectional images of the coronary artery wall can be obtained. The device serves as an important step toward characterizing cellular and sub-cellular structures in vivo for coronary artery disease diagnosis.
Biwei Yin, Zhonglie Piao, Chulho Daryl Hyun, Kensuke Nishimiya, Joseph A. Gardecki, and Guillermo J. Tearney, "Cellular-resolution, extended depth of focus optical coherence tomography catheter toward in vivo cardiovascular imaging (Conference Presentation)," Proc. SPIE 10471, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Applications of Light in Cardiology 2018, 104710B (Presented at SPIE BiOS: January 27, 2018; Published: 14 March 2018); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2288747.5751467320001.
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