Apoptosis is a pathway to cell death frequently observed after photodynamic therapy (PDT). Sub-cellular photodamage to mitochondria, lysosomes, the ER, or combinations of these targets, can lead to apoptotic death. We have recently investigated another pathway to cell death after PDT termed ‘paraptosis’. This is characterized by extensive cytoplasmic vacuolization, does not involve caspase activation or nuclear fragmentation, requires a brief interval of continued protein synthesis and appears to derive from ER stress. Determinants and further characteristics of PDT-derived paraptosis are explored in the A549 non small-cell lung cancer cell line and in cells derived from head and neck cancer tissues. We provide evidence that ER photodamage and JNK pathway activation are involved in PDT-mediated paraptosis.
David Kessel, Won-Jin Cho, and Hyeong-Reh Kim, "Photodynamic therapy: the role of paraptosis," Proc. SPIE 10476, Optical Methods for Tumor Treatment and Detection: Mechanisms and Techniques in Photodynamic Therapy XXVII, 1047602 (Presented at SPIE BiOS: January 27, 2018; Published: 12 February 2018); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2291997.
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Study of self-shadowing effect as a simple means to realize nanostructured thin films and layers with special attentions to birefringent obliquely deposited thin films and photo-luminescent porous silicon