We developed light-triggered liposomes incorporating gold nanoparticles and Rose Bengal (RB), a well-known photosensitizer used for photodynamic therapy. Singlet oxygen generated by these liposomes with 532 nm light illumination was characterized by adjusting the molar ratio of lipids and gold nanoparticles while keeping the amount of RB constant. Gold nanoparticles were found to enhance the singlet oxygen generation rate, with a maximum enhancement factor of 1.75 obtained for the molar ratio of HSPC: PE-NH2: gold of 57:5:17 compared with liposomes loaded with RB alone. The experimental results could be explained by the local electric field enhancement caused by gold nanoparticles. We further assessed cellular cytotoxicity of these liposomes by encapsulating an antitumor drug, doxorubicin (Dox); such Dox loaded liposomes were applied to human colorectal cancer cells, HCT116, and exposed to light. Gold-loaded liposomes containing RB and Dox where Dox release was triggered by light were found to exhibit higher cytotoxicity, compared to the liposomes loaded with RB and Dox alone. Our results indicate that gold-loaded liposomes incorporating photosensitizers may have improved therapeutic efficacy in photodynamic therapy and chemotherapy.
Zofia Kautzka, Sandhya Clement, Ewa M. Goldys, and Wei Deng, "Light-triggered liposomal cargo delivery platform incorporating photosensitizers and gold nanoparticles for enhanced singlet oxygen generation and increased cytotoxicity," Proc. SPIE 10476, Optical Methods for Tumor Treatment and Detection: Mechanisms and Techniques in Photodynamic Therapy XXVII, 104760A (Presented at SPIE BiOS: January 27, 2018; Published: 12 February 2018); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2286552.
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