Cherenkov imaging during radiation therapy has been developed as a tool for dosimetry, which could have applications in patient delivery verification or in regular quality audit. The cameras used are intensified imaging sensors, either ICCD or ICMOS cameras, which allow important features of imaging, including: (1) nanosecond time gating, (2) amplification by 103-104, which together allow for imaging which has (1) real time capture at 10-30 frames per second, (2) sensitivity at the level of single photon event level, and (3) ability to suppress background light from the ambient room. However, the capability to achieve single photon imaging has not been fully analyzed to date, and as such was the focus of this study. The ability to quantitatively characterize how a single photon event appears in amplified camera imaging from the Cherenkov images was analyzed with image processing. The signal seen at normal gain levels appears to be a blur of about 90 counts in the CCD detector, after going through the chain of photocathode detection, amplification through a microchannel plate PMT, excitation onto a phosphor screen and then imaged on the CCD. The analysis of single photon events requires careful interpretation of the fixed pattern noise, statistical quantum noise distributions, and the spatial spread of each pulse through the ICCD.
Philip M. Adamson, Jacqueline M. Andreozzi, Ethan LaRochelle, David J. Gladstone, and Brian W. Pogue, "Single photon detection imaging of Cherenkov light emitted during radiation therapy," Proc. SPIE 10478, Molecular-Guided Surgery: Molecules, Devices, and Applications IV, 1047812 (Presented at SPIE BiOS: January 29, 2018; Published: 1 March 2018); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2292669.
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