Rose Bengal (RB) is a halogenated xanthene dye that has been used to mediate antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation. While highly active against Gram-positive bacteria, RB is largely inactive in killing Gram-negative bacteria. We have discovered that addition of the non-toxic salt potassium iodide (100mM) potentiates green light (540nm)-mediated killing by up to six extra logs with Gramnegative bacteria Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa,Gram-positive methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and fungal yeast Candida albicans. The mechanism is proposed to be singlet oxygen addition to iodide anion to form peroxyiodide, which decomposes into radicals, finally forms hydrogen peroxide and molecular iodine. The effects of these different bactericidal species can be teased apart by comparing killing in three different scenarios: (1) cells+RB+KI are mixed together then illuminated with green light; (2) cells+RB are centrifuged then KI added then green light; (3) RB+KI+green light then cells added after light. We showed that KI could potentiate RBPDT in a mouse model of skin abrasions infected with bioluminescent P.aeruginosa.
Xiang Wen, Xiaoshen Zhang, Grzegorz Szewczyk, Ahmed ElHussien, Ying-Ying Huang, Tadeusz Sarna, and Michael R. Hamblin, "Potassium iodide potentiates antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation mediated by Rose Bengal: in vitro and in vivo studies," Proc. SPIE 10479, Light-Based Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, 1047911 (Presented at SPIE BiOS: January 31, 2018; Published: 8 February 2018); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2288898.
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