An endotracheal tube (ETT) is required for the management of critically ill, mechanically ventilated patients. Ventilatorassociated pneumonia (VAP) affects patients hospitalized in intensive care units; its risk of occurrence is 1% to up 3% for each day of mechanical ventilation. The polymicrobial nature of VAP is established with mixed bacterial-fungal biofilms colonizing the ETT. The microbial interaction enhances the microbial pathogenesis contributing to high indexes of morbidity/mortality. Antimicrobial Photodynamic Therapy (aPDT) could be a suitable therapy for decontamination of oral cavity and ETT at the same time, but the use of a fiber optics inside the ETT seems to not be appropriated since a cannula for secretion aspiration has to be introduced into the ETT to keep it´s lumen. The aim of this study is to proof the concept that an external light source from a LED is capable of reach all areas of the ETT. We use a commercial ETT, 60μM methylene blue (MB), and a 660nm diode laser and calculated the transmission coefficient of light in different situations as only tube, tube with biofilm and biofilm+MB. The results prove that is possible to transmit light through the tube even in the presence of MB and biofilm although a high attenuation of about 60% was measured depending on the tested condition.
Rosane Bassi, Walter Myakawa, Ricardo S. Navarro, Alessandra Baptista, Martha Simões Ribeiro, and Silvia Cristina Nunez, "Photodynamic therapy to destroy pneumonia associated microorganisms using external irradiation source," Proc. SPIE 10479, Light-Based Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, 1047917 (Presented at SPIE BiOS: January 31, 2018; Published: 8 February 2018); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2290764.
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Study of self-shadowing effect as a simple means to realize nanostructured thin films and layers with special attentions to birefringent obliquely deposited thin films and photo-luminescent porous silicon