The world health organization recommends visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) and/or Lugol’s Iodine (VILI) for cervical cancer screening in low-resource settings. Human interpretation of diagnostic indicators for visual inspection is qualitative, subjective, and has high inter-observer discordance, which could lead both to adverse outcomes for the patient and unnecessary follow-ups. In this work, we a simple method for automatic feature extraction and classification for Lugol’s Iodine cervigrams acquired with a low-cost, miniature, digital colposcope. Algorithms to preprocess expert physician-labelled cervigrams and to extract simple but powerful color-based features are introduced. The features are used to train a support vector machine model to classify cervigrams based on expert physician labels. The selected framework achieved a sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of 89.2%, 66.7% and 80.6% with majority diagnosis of the expert physicians in discriminating cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN +) relative to normal tissues. The proposed classifier also achieved an area under the curve of 84 when trained with majority diagnosis of the expert physicians. The results suggest that utilizing simple color-based features may enable unbiased automation of VILI cervigrams, opening the door to a full system of low-cost data acquisition complemented with automatic interpretation.
Mercy Nyamewaa Asiedu, Anish Simhal, Christopher T. Lam, Jenna Mueller, Usamah Chaudhary, John W. Schmitt, Guillermo Sapiro, and Nimmi Ramanujam, "Image processing and machine learning techniques to automate diagnosis of Lugol's iodine cervigrams for a low-cost point-of-care digital colposcope," Proc. SPIE 10485, Optics and Biophotonics in Low-Resource Settings IV, 1048508 (Presented at SPIE BiOS: January 27, 2018; Published: 13 February 2018); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2282792.
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