In this paper, multimodal optical-resolution frequency-domain photoacoustic and fluorescence scanning microscopy is presented on labeled and unlabeled cells. In many molecules, excited electrons relax radiatively and non-radiatively, leading to fluorescence and photoacoustic signals, respectively. Both signals can then be detected simultaneously. There also exist molecules, e.g. hemoglobin, which do not exhibit fluorescence, but provide photoacoustic signals solely. Other molecules, especially fluorescent dyes, preferentially exhibit fluorescence. The fluorescence quantum yield of a molecule and with it the strength of photoacoustic and fluorescence signals depends on the local environment, e.g. on the pH. Therefore, the local distribution of the simultaneously recorded photoacoustic and fluorescence signals may be used in order to obtain information about the local chemistry.
Gregor Langer, Bianca Buchegger, Jaroslaw Jacak, Karoline Pfeffer, Sven Wohlfarth, Günther Hannesschläger, Thomas A. Klar, and Thomas Berer, "Frequency-domain photoacoustic and fluorescence microscopy: application on labeled and unlabeled cells," Proc. SPIE 10487, Multimodal Biomedical Imaging XIII, 1048709 (Presented at SPIE BiOS: January 27, 2018; Published: 13 February 2018); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2290023.
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