Percutaneous coronary interventions are widely performed minimally invasive procedures used to treat narrowing (stenosis) of arteries in the heart. Differential blood pressure measurements across a stenosis are invaluable to estimate the prognostic benefit of performing angioplasty and stenting via calculation of the fractional flow reserve. Achieving stable measurements from within pressure microcatheters and guidewires that are compatible with stenosed vessels, and which can be fabricated with low cost manufacturing methods, remains an important challenge. We have developed all-optical pressure and temperature sensors with a single optical fibre and sensing element. This approach provides simultaneous temperature and pressure measurements in a highly miniaturised device, with a simple construction method using low cost materials. Polymeric structures including membranes and domes are applied to the distal ends of single mode optical fibres. Temperature and pressure changes induce time-varying displacements of these structures, which are monitored using phase-resolved low-coherence interferometry. Phase measurements are acquired at 250 Hz with a sensitivity of approximately 0.2 rad/°C for temperature measurements between 20 and 45°C, and approximately 0.08 rad/mmHg for pressure between 760 and 1060 mmHg. In vivo studies in arteries and hearts of sheep and swine indicate that the sensors have sufficient sensitivity and speed for measurement of physiological pressure waveforms in clinical settings. We will discuss the integration of these sensors within medical devices, and the potential for providing additional physiological parameters with the same devices.
Joanna Coote, Sandy Mosse, Sacha Noimark, Erwin Alles, Callum Little, Chris D. Loder, Roby D. Rakhit, Malcolm C Finlay, and Adrien E. Desjardins, "Fibre-optic pressure and temperature measurements using phase-resolved low-coherence interferometry (Conference Presentation)," Proc. SPIE 10488, Optical Fibers and Sensors for Medical Diagnostics and Treatment Applications XVIII, 104880E (Presented at SPIE BiOS: January 27, 2018; Published: 14 March 2018); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2290007.5751456471001.
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