The under laid gas and oil pipelines on the seafloor are prone to various disturbances like seismic movements of the sea bed, oceanic currents, tsunamis. These factors tend to damage such pipelines connecting different locations of the world dependent on these pipelines for their day-to-day use of oil and natural gas. If damaged, the oil spills in the water bodies cause grave loss to marine life along with serious economic issues. It is not feasible to monitor the undersea pipelines manually because of the huge seafloor depth. For timely detection of such damage, a new technique using optical Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors and its installation has been given in this work. The idea of an FBG sensor for detecting damage in pipeline structure based on the acoustic emission has been worked out. The numerical calculation has been done based on the fundamental of strain measurement and the output has been simulated using MATLAB.
Amna Bedi, Vaishali Kothari, and Santosh Kumar, "Design and analysis of FBG based sensor for detection of damage in oil and gas pipelines for safety of marine life," Proc. SPIE 10488, Optical Fibers and Sensors for Medical Diagnostics and Treatment Applications XVIII, 104880X (Presented at SPIE BiOS: January 28, 2018; Published: 13 February 2018); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2285923.
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Study of self-shadowing effect as a simple means to realize nanostructured thin films and layers with special attentions to birefringent obliquely deposited thin films and photo-luminescent porous silicon